如何撰写英文科技论文

相思要创作一篇优秀的英文科研论文,对于无英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一件容易的工作。有时候能否射到重胜分的杂志刊物和写作水平也密不可分。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何做一篇优秀之英文科研论文。

思念只要描绘一首优秀的英文科研论文,就如先了解什么是地道的论文什么不是。
修不喜看的文章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的篇章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或达有误
(3)语法和其余左

便而言一首科研论文包含以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题目是编辑或者阅读者首先看底,因此赢得一个好题至关重要。
咱俩只要就此最为少的单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三点要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.寻常采取以下三栽形式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为帮忙读者很快了解文章的内容。
发生以下几独要求:
1.独立性和完整性
得独立在并能够传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
以Abstract有字数限制,我们不能不用不久几句话说明全文的核心思想,因此各一个单词和语句都设细心琢磨
3.形式符合期刊的规范
以发表于Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为条例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以简单提试艺术)
红线:总结(可以适用展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究领域的向上景象(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是同本文主线最相关的研究背景。重要的点定要涉及到。细节处可以当文中提及时再介绍。
2.经过座谈仍研究世界啊釜底抽薪之题目(包括自己前面发表论文不缓解之题材),自然过渡至介绍你的试验目的及主要。
3.当最后简单介绍本研究所召开的始末及结论。
注意:
自然要于少的字数内到介绍都知道不易背景,但是毫无过分铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍有关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

相对而言就是一致首稿子最自在的局部,但是这个部分吗是无限轻犯错的片段。通常方法材料有些的语法检查最不密切,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很重要,有系统的叙说故事。注意段及段中间的逻辑。可以以每一样有的有点结果的开赛写有承上启下的词以连续段。

  1. 各一样截表达一个理念。在每段遭遇为要是出逻辑(时间各个,从连到具体的逐一,因果顺序),可以应用平行的句式和实用的连接词。开头和最后很重要,在结尾处要做让人印象深刻的强调。
    3.对试验结果开展规范之描述。如果语言不当会导致误会。推测的结果应当用部分象征想、可能的梳洗词语。
    4.针对性实验结果进行合理的下结论与说。
    5.如果章数下同一档实验,在率先不好介绍时不过详细一些,让读者更易理解,而从此的介绍好省略些。
    6.
    以讲述实验操作与试验结果经常用过去常常,在形容结论与诱发时用今天不时。

叙述实验艺术与结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
于连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定与启迪时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

议论是相对难写的组成部分,讨论不是对结果粗略的陈列,而是对结果开展更加深刻的讨论:
公的研讨解决了世界受到怎样问题和疑惑
您的钻研提出了怎样新的或许
尔后应该怎么去进一步研究等
貌似,还好于结尾处再总结一下温馨的研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出可以创作的老三准绳:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.基本上用主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.几近据此动词,选择再标准的动词。突出动词,尽量不要将动词变为名词。
3.简洁语言

故主动态

给动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
可以改也:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
得修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 分选重复确切之动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 不见把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 只要用着重的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

简短语言的注意事项

1.请勿需要介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.夺丢没有意义的歌词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在重中之重的词上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.又意义的词或句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.并非常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改句式,精简语言
分公司(semicolon): 连接两只单身的从句。
圆括如泣如诉(parenthesis):
加入解释或者部分想法,即使没当即片句子也应当是单身的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要正式。用于列举,引用,举例,第二独由句是第一个由句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释还是概念。留给重要之用处。

在英文作文中我们常犯的问题:
1.科学用语之准确性
2.时态错(描述实验过程结果经常用过去式,总结实验结果时用现时时常)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的以不当
5.比不针对顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.之所以词要句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.行使口语化用词

末尾,那么我们到底要怎么提高写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以尝尝每次翻阅了论文后之所以两三句话概括或评头品足文章的情
尚可将读了章被的经文句式、好词摘录下