如何编写英文科学和技术随想

Introduction

1.介绍本文研商世界的发展境况(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是与本文主线最相关的探讨背景。紧要的点一定要提到到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.由此座谈本探究领域为杀鸡取蛋的标题(包蕴团结以前揭橥随想未缓解的题材),自然过渡到介绍你的试验目标和要紧。
3.在最终不难介绍本探讨所做的情节和结论。
注意:
肯定要在简单的篇幅内周到介绍已知不易背景,然而毫无过分铺开,只要围绕文章主线重视介绍相关的背景即可。

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为着帮衬读者很快精通小说的情节。
有以下多少个须求:
1.独立性和完整性
可以独自存在并可以传达全文大旨情想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
因为Abstract有字数限制,大家务必用短短几句话表达全文的大旨情想,因而每一个单词和语句都要细心推敲
3.样式符合期刊的规范
以发表在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

格林:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以省略提实验方法)
红线:总计(可以确切展望提高)

Results

1.逻辑很重点,有系统的讲述故事。注意段与段间的逻辑。可以在每一部分的小结果的开业写一些承上启下的语句以三番五次段落。

  1. 每一段表明一个理念。在每段中也要有逻辑(时间各类,从包涵到实际的依次,因果顺序),可以应用平行的句式和有效性的连接词。初步和结尾很要紧,在结尾处要做让人纪念深刻的强调。
    3.对试验结果举行准确的叙述。如果语言不当会招致误解。估计的结果应该选拔部分代表推断、可能的修饰词语。
    4.对试验结果举办合理的总括和平解决释。
    5.假设篇章很多次运用同一品种实验,在首先次介绍时可详细一些,让读者更便于明白,而后来的介绍可以简不难单些。
    6.
    在描述实验操作和试验结果时用过去时,在写结论和启发时用前日时。

叙述实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
相比连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
结论和启发时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

想要撰写一篇非凡的英文科研小说,对于非拉脱维亚语母语的科研工作者而言并非一件简单的业务。有时候能不能投到更高分的笔记刊物与写作水平也牢牢。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,不难介绍怎么样编写一篇优良的英文科研杂谈。

从简语言的注意事项

1.不须要介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.去掉没有意思的词。例如: important

3.啰嗦的词简化,把精力花在根本的句子上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.双重意义的词或句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.剪掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.不要常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改变句式,精简语言
分公司(semicolon): 连接五个单身的从句。
圆括号(parenthesis):
参预解释或局地想方设法,尽管没有那部分句子也理应是单独的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要正式。用于列举,引用,举例,第四个从句是首先个从句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或概念。留给主要的用途。

在英文作文中大家常犯的题材:
1.科学措辞的准头
2.时态错误(描述实验进程结果时用过去式,统计实验结果时用明日时)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的行使不当
5.比较不对等:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.用词或句式单一
7.语序难题
8.句子过长
9.使用口语化用词

最后,那么我们到底要怎么样增强写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以尝试每回翻阅完随笔后用两三句话概括或评头品足小说的始末
仍能将读过小说中的经典句式、好词摘录下来

Title

标题是编辑或者阅读者首先看到的,由此取一个好标题至关首要。
咱俩要用最少的单词概括出作品的主旨,对标题有以下三点须求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.幸免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.见惯不惊选用以下二种样式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

动词

  1. 慎选更精确的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 少把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 要将重点的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

想要写一篇出色的英文科研杂谈,就要先明了怎么是好好的随想什么不是。
编写不欣赏看到的稿子类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的稿子
(2)用语不当夸大其词或发布有误
(3)语法和别的错误百出

Discussion

座谈是对峙难写的局地,啄磨不是对结果粗略的陈列,而是对结果开展进一步深刻的座谈:
您的钻探解决了世界中什么难题和猜忌
你的探讨指出了怎么新的或者
随后应该如何去进一步探究等
诚如,还足以在结尾处再下结论一下投机的钻探成果

1976年,威尔iam Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提议可以创作的三尺码:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.多用主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.多用动词,选取更标准的动词。卓越动词,尽量不要把动词变为名词。
3.精简语言

Materials and Methods

相对而言那是一篇作品最自在的局地,可是此部分也是最不难犯错的片段。寻常方法材料有些的语法检查最不密切,常见难点概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

常常而言一篇科研杂文包括以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

用主动态

被动态包含:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
可以修改为:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
可以修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.